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What is Arduino?

Arduino for beginners

In this article we will talk about arduino, namely - acquaintance with this device. The hardware will be disassembled: what fee to buy, where to buy, what varieties there are, as well as software: on what, and where to write programs.

Introduction

An Arduino is a board that has its own processor and its own memory. On such a board there are several contacts to which you can connect LEDs, motors, sensors and other things that are powered by electricity.

The main advantage of arduino is that beginners do not need to dwell on the laws of physics. You can immediately concentrate on creating sketches for the board. Sketch is a program for arduino written in a programming language.

Hardware

The arduino has many analogues, as the device itself is popular and open. Because of this, there are many manufacturers whose board may be the same as in the original, and may differ in architecture, or in some other factor.

Original arduino boards are produced in Italy, and analogues - in China, there are developments in Russia.

So, the assortment was sorted out, but what to take a beginner? For starters, a starter kit is a good fit. It has everything you need to get acquainted with this device: boards, resistors, LEDs, LCD screen, buttons, sensors, motors and so on. The original manufacturer arduino costs about 80 euros, the analogues on aliexpress it costs about $ 40, and this is an average price, there is also cheaper.

Software part

Now let's write the first program in arduino. But first it is worth understanding in what stages the creation of the project will take place:

  1. Writing the program
  2. Prototyping the program
  3. Firmware

To write programs and flash the arduino board, you will need to install the IDE on your computer. There are a huge number of different IDEs, but use the original development environment - Arduino IDE.
By the way, projects for arduino are more convenient to write in C++, as it is optimized for arduino boards.

Now let's look at this simple code structure:

main(){
void setup(){
}
void loop(){

}
}

The main(){ function is automatically created by arduino, so the encoder only sees this:

void setup(){
}
void loop(){

}

Now about what these functions perform:

  • void setup() - called only at the beginning, when the controller starts, sets the default parameters.
  • void loop() is a repeating loop that runs while the controller is running.

First program

Let's write the simplest program in order to understand the impact of the program on the controller.

int Led = 13; declare a variable Led for 13 pins (output)
void setup(){
pinMode(Led, OUTPUT); // define a variable
}
void loop(){
digitalWrite(Led, HIGH); // supply voltage to 13 pin
delay(1000); // expect 1 second
digitalWrite(Led, LOW); // do not apply voltage to 13 pin
delay(1000); // wait 1 second

}

The principle of the program is very simple. In the first line, we declare the variable Led and assign a value of 13, where the value is the pin on which the LED is located.

Then in the void setup() function, we define this variable. And already in the void loop() function, we write a cycle in which the LED burns for one second, and then fades by one second.

Firmware

Now about the firmware, first the program itself needs to be saved. After that, you need to go to the "tools" on the top panel, and in the "Board" section, select your board. All this is necessary so that the next download does not have any problems.

Also, do not forget about the "port" section. In it, you need to select the port to which you connected the arduino.
After all these steps, you can start downloading the sketch to the board. To do this, go to the tab "Sketch" further "Download". After the firmware of the board will occur.

Prototyping the program

 

Now for prototyping. Now we need to assemble the layout. To do this, you will need such components as:

  • LED
  • Fee
  • Resistor

Let's deal with the LED. He has two "legs" under his head. Long is a plus, short is a minus. On the minus we will connect the GND and the resistor (it is needed so as not to burn the LED, since the current will be much less). And on the long "paw" we will supply power (connect to the 13 pin). After that, the flashing process takes place.

Total

The Arduino is an interesting device. You can start practicing without having large sums, since there are inexpensive analogues.

 

Arduino programming language

 

The Arduino program is usually written in the Arduino IDE. The program is a set of instructions in the built-in language C. It has some special header files in the form of zip files that are available on the Internet to provide specialized functions. Arduino programs are called sketch.

The Arduino code must contain two functions:

  • voidsetup()
  • voidloop().

These are the two main elements of any Arduino code.

All declarations are executed in voidsetup(). The name contains the word "installation", which should indicate its purpose. The actual commands (to be executed) and the computational process are encoded in the voidloop() function. 'Loop' means that the sketch will execute indefinitely.

 

Arduino IDE

 

What language is used to write the Arduino program?

Built-in C is used to write Arduino programs. It is used for applications that are very close to the hardware. This is directly related to the hardware. It is very similar to C and C++. But it does have some built-in features that are different from the usual features used in regular C.

What is sketch?

The Arduino program is called sketch. It contains instructions to be executed byArduino that are written in the built-in C language.

What are the common syntax elements in Arduino programming?

The general syntax for writing an Arduino program is almost similar to that of regular C and C++. Those familiar with basic C and C++ will find it easy to learn arduino. If you want to quickly summarize your knowledge of the C language, we have a free C programming course for beginners that you can check.

What are the different types of variables in the Arduino program?

There are about 18 types of data in the Arduino programming language.

What is int?

 

Integers are a type of data that can store numbers. The ArduinoUnoint can store a 16-byte value, which is a 2-byte value. Here, int has a range of -32,768 to 32,767. That is from -2^15 to 2^15. On some boards, such as the ArduinoDue, int can store a 32-bit value of 4 bytes.
int can also store negative numbers using augmentation mathematics. That the most significant bit is a sign. The unsignedint type can store only positive numbers.

What is a Feature?

 

Apart from the built-in functions, you can also write your own functions. Using this, we can divide a large program into basic building blocks.

It contains a set of programming statements with curly braces in the form {}. It provides reusability.

User-defined functions are divided into four types:

  • An argumentless function that returns no value.
  • An argumentless function that returns a value.
  • An argumentative function that returns no value.
  • An argumentative function that returns a value.

Advantages of Arduino

  • Arduino is the most popular platform for amateur and educational electronics and robotics.
  • The speed of design and development on the Arduino is much higher than that of other microcontrollers, this is due to a well-developed architecture.
  • Accessibility. The original ArduinoUno can be bought within 2000 rubles.
  • A huge community of Arduino. There is a lot of useful literature and information on the Internet, dedicated to the topic of Arduino.

Inference

 

There's a lot more you can do with Arduino, and we'll look at the next stage of Arduino programming at a later stage of this Arduino course. However, what we've seen in this post should be more than enough for you to be able to work with most projects. If you have any questions, we are always happy to help. Let us know in the comments and we'll get back to you. Feel free to bookmark this page for later use.

 

Arduino language commands

Arduino is a special programming language that uses special hardware represented by chips to perform tasks and test codes. More precisely, this software is used to ensure that all the functions of microcontrollers work correctly, while using C ++, which is owned not only by highly specialized programmers, but also by everyone who wants to develop in this direction.

Most users use articles for training, and therefore it is recommended to learn as much as possible on the site on Arduino. The Arduino Language Reference will help with this. Just there will be collected a complete list of commands of the Arduino language, used by people in various projects. Therefore, it is recommended to read the article to the end, because it contains all the main and important points that allow you to learn the Arduino C++ programming language.

Basic information about Arduino

 

So, we recommend that you first clarify the complexity of C++ programming. Yes, it is a heavy low-level language with a high entry threshold. Therefore, new users will experience difficulties at different moments. But arduino uses a simpler firmware, which is why problems with misunderstanding the code by a person are excluded.

It is recommended to take the basics of Arduino from this article, as well as using the Arduino language reference. It lists all the commands, including their detailed description, so that the user can decide what needs to be written in a particular line of code. But still, it is also necessary to take into account the features of Arduino, because of which users should check the work for errors as best as possible, even if it is code included in the class "the simplest projects using Arduino".

First, it is recommended to give a few rules for writing code:

  • As in other languages (but not all), you need to leave a semicolon at the end of the line (;);
  • It is important to indicate the data type before the variable so that the program for Arduino understands what needs to be executed;
  • There are 2 types of comments and they need to be distinguished: the first is // Lowercase//, and the second is /*block*/.

This is not all that a beginner needs to know, but such rules should be adhered to.

Arduino - Functions

 

In Arduino there are many functions for performing operations. For example, it is:

  • "setup()" - designed to configure all components after the start of the system, called pins, power elements, etc .;
  • "loop()" is a function that allows the controller to operate in a "loop". That is, the commands loop and repeat after completing each other.

Most of the other commands can be found using the Arduino language directory. There are detailed elements, divided into classes and fully described by purpose and features. Better yet, it's worth digging into a place called the Arduino Library, because there will be a lot of interesting things to develop in terms of this language.

Inference

 

Arduino is not a simple language. It is also tied to the use of special equipment, which is sometimes problematic to connect. But still, developing your skills in this language, it is even possible to write serious projects on Arduino, coming up with new ideas, experimenting and achieving success in programming.