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The most popular programming languages in 2022

In the article "The most popular IT professions in 2022"  there was a review of our labor market for vacancies. And now we need to pay attention to what is most important in IT – programming languages.

 

First programming language

 

Programming languages (YPs) themselves originated in the first half of the last century. We will not delve into history much, but we will touch upon the main milestones in the development of languages. The first YP is machine code. It was a sequence of "1" and "0". One is a high voltage and zero is a low voltage. Accordingly, the combinations "1" and "0" allowed you to set the necessary command. But such code, to put it mildly, is cumbersome, inconvenient and too complex: the slightest mistake led to the complete inoperability of the entire program. And to find the error... An additional headache was the peculiarities of the work of the blocks of each computer, which means that the program for each computer was written its own.

 

Machine Code – Awkward Creepy

 

The difficulty of writing machine code led to the creation of assembly. This is a mnemonic language that allowed you to control the computer by means of already letter commands (for example, add is addition, and on the machine code the same operation would look like this - "000010"). This YAP is also low-level: here it is necessary to take into account the type of processor and its characteristics. Nevertheless, the language did not remain on the sidelines of progress: it is still used in the creation of the OS, drivers, antiviruses, games, etc. And all because of the speed: the code is executed almost instantly due to its miniature. High-level YPs do not provide such a speed.

 

Low-level language is already cool, but still not the same

 

The next step was the emergence of high-level languages. Here are already laid constructions that describe data structures and possible operations with them. Another goal of such languages is platform independence: translators convert high-level operations into instructions that are understandable to processors. As a result, it simplifies the porting of software between devices and the OS. Minus - a lower speed of work.

The first high-level nuclear power plant is FORTRAN (creation time 1954-1957). Although, this can be considered Plankalkül (Plankalkül). Plankalkühl was created in 1943-1945 by the German engineer Zuse, and published in 1948, and then not completely (the publication of the full description occurred only in 1972). This was due to the defeat in the war, the lack of material support and the prohibition on the part of the Allies to engage in scientific and practical research without special permission. But the German YAP could become much more popular than FORTRAN.

The history of the further development of YP is very interesting, but this is not the topic of one article. Therefore, let's return to our time and consider which relevant languages occupy leading places. We picked up 10 YPs that are worth paying attention to. As a starting point, data from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE [4]), Analytics Insight [5] and vacancies presented at the rabota.by [6] were taken.

 

What's popular now

 

Languages are arranged in descending order: from the most popular to the least needed in our labor market. The pay gap is huge. This is due to the fact that companies are recruiting both green newcomers and Senior specialists.

 

JavaScript 

 

JS is a multi-paradigm YP with support for object-oriented, imperative, and functional styles. The most common is in web programming, although it is not limited to it. Language makes web pages interactive, lively. It is easy to learn, although not everyone likes it. However, JS is effective, and that's a fact.

Having thoroughly studied the language, you will not be left without a job. At the moment, there are almost 1000 vacancies only in our country, not to mention the near abroad.

 

SQL 

 

It is an informational and logical database management language that can be procedurally extended (in its original form, this YAP is incomplete by Turing). Initially, SQL had very limited capabilities with respect to databases: creating a new table in the database, adding/modifying/deleting records, selecting from several tables according to a given condition, changing the structure of tables.

In the course of further development of the language, new instructions, operators, computed functions appeared, tools for working with existing objects were added. That is.SQL has acquired features that bring it closer to the YAP.

 

Java

 

This OOP can be used everywhere: mobile development, PC software, web programming. Java adheres to the following principle: once written, the code will work everywhere. With one caveat: devices must support the JVM, a virtual machine that converts application bytecode into machine-readable instructions.

There are some difficulties in learning, because the basis of the language is JP S. Therefore, some points will have to be taken on faith and return to them after a good mastery of the language. Ideally, it's worth learning C first, but it's quite complex compared to Java.

 

Initially, it was created for UNIX, but quickly gained popularity and was transferred to other platforms. Its tools are almost comparable to machine instructions, i.e. it has become an assistant to the assembler in terms of speed. Accordingly, it is used in the creation of os, in embedded systems, supercomputers. He also became the progenitors of such YPs as C++, C#, Java and Objective-C. Very difficult to learn. If you understand it, then the whole family of languages based on C will be easy to master.

 

Python 

It is a multi-paradigm YP with support for object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming. The Standard Library is a large list of functions into which C/C++ libraries can be integrated. Backward integration is also supported.

It is used in data analysis, machine learning, web programming, game development and can even be a replacement for SQL. But in Belarus, SQL has overtaken Python in the proposed vacancies by 2 times.

 

C# 

 

OOP, which was created on the basis of C++ and Java by a team from Microsoft for the .NET Framework and .NET Core projects. When creating the language, we bypassed the problematic aspects of its predecessors (for example, multiple class inheritance was not supported with the support of multiple implementations of interfaces).

The language is not the easiest to learn, but with proper patience and communication on specialized forums, almost everyone can do it. It can be used in web programming, creating desktop and mobile applications, embedded systems.

 

C++ 

 

In fact, this is object-oriented C. It is used in the creation of OS, drivers, application programs, embedded systems, games, server software. The syntax is close to the progenitor, but there are still significant differences.

 

Kotlin 

 

Kotlin was created as a simplified Java for Android development. And Google itself encourages the use of this YAP for software development: since 2017, the language's tools have been integrated into Android Studio 3.0, a software development tool on Adroid. On the official website [9] there is always up-to-date information on the language.

 

Swift 

 

This language is used to create software for "apple" products. Or rather, the California giant created a new YAP for itself. Before that, Apple used Objective-C, but it is inferior to Swift by almost 2.5 times in terms of execution speed. No wonder the translation of the name YAP is fast.

The prospects for studying Swift are not yet subject to doubt. Things are going well for Apple, which means that there are a sufficiently large number of gadgets using iOS and macOS, so that specialists do not frantically look for a job.

 

Go 

Developed by Google, there are compilers for Windows, Android, AIX, Free/Open/DragonFly BSD, Linux, macOS, Plan 9 and Solaris. Go (or Golang) was conceived as a replacement for C and C ++ to work with distributed systems and modern multi-core processors. Google has released an interpreter for Go, but there is no particular need for it: the compilation speed allows for interactive development. The main areas of use are web programming and desktop software.