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Frameworks in web development

Frameworks in web development

Frameworks are software products that simplify the creation and maintenance of technically complex or loaded projects. The framework, as a rule, contains only basic software modules, and all project-specific components are implemented by the developer on their basis. Thus, not only high speed of development is achieved, but also greater performance and reliability of solutions.

A web framework is a platform for creating sites and web applications that facilitates the development and integration of various components of a large software project. Due to the wide possibilities in the implementation of business logic and high performance, this platform is especially well suited for creating complex websites, business applications and web services.

The main advantages of frameworks

Economic efficiency and feasibility of using frameworks

From a business point of view, developing on a framework is almost always more cost-effective and better than writing a project in a pure programming language without using any platforms. Developing without using a platform can be the right solution only in two cases – either the project is quite simple and does not require further development, or it is very loaded and requires very low-level optimization (for example, web services with tens of thousands of hits per second). In all other cases, development on a software platform is faster and better.

If we compare frameworks with other classes of platforms - SaaS, CMS or CMF - then frameworks are much more effective to use in projects with complex business logic and with high requirements for speed, reliability and security. But in simple and typical projects without significant requirements, the speed and cost of development on the framework will be higher than on SaaS or CMS.

Technical advantages of frameworks

One of the main advantages in using frameworks is that the framework defines a unified structure for applications built on its basis. Therefore, applications on frameworks are much easier to maintain and refine, since the standardized structure of the organization of components is understandable to all developers on this platform and it does not take a long time to understand the architecture to understand the principle of the application or find a place to implement a particular functionality. Most frameworks for developing web applications use the MVC (model-view-controller) paradigm - that is, in many frameworks there is an identical approach to organizing the components of the application and this further simplifies the understanding of the application architecture even on a framework unfamiliar to the developer.

Designing a software architecture when developing on a framework is also very simplified - the best practices of software engineering are usually laid down in the methodologies of frameworks and simply following these rules you can avoid many problems and errors in the design. In fact, the framework is a set of concrete and abstract classes related to each other and ordered according to the framework methodology. Concrete classes usually implement mutual relationships between classes, and abstract classes are extension points in which the basic functionality embedded in the framework can be used "as is" or adapted to the tasks of a particular application. To provide extensibility, most frameworks use object-oriented programming techniques: for example, parts of the application can inherit from the base classes of the framework or individual modules can be connected as impurities.

Web framework ecosystems are also rich in ready-made implementations of many functionalities. Developers do not need to "reinvent the wheel" when working on typical tasks, since they can use the implementation already created by the community. And this not only reduces the cost of time and money, but also allows you to achieve higher stability of the solution - a component that is used and finalized by thousands of other developers is usually more qualitatively implemented and better tested on all sorts of scenarios than a solution that can be developed by one developer or even a small team in an adequate time.

Frameworks are not libraries

A library is a simpler component of a software architecture. The software library can be used simply as a set of subsystems of similar functionality, without affecting the architecture of the main software product and without imposing any restrictions on it.

The framework not only gives the developer the necessary functionality, but also dictates the rules for building the architecture of the application, setting the default behavior at the initial stage of development, forming a framework that will need to be expanded and changed according to the specified requirements. The framework can also include auxiliary programs, code libraries, a scripting language and other software that facilitates the development and integration of various components of a large software project.

Comparison with alternatives

web developeroften faces a choice between out-of-the-box CMS and frameworks for the implementation of the project. Each of the approaches has its pros and cons, below we will consider the advantages and disadvantages of developing on frameworks.

Pros of frameworks

  • Development on the framework (in contrast to self-written solutions) allows you to achieve simplicity of project maintenance.
  • It is possible (and relatively simple) to implement any business processes, not just those that are originally embedded in the system. Also, projects based on frameworks are easily scalable and modernized.
  • Solutions on frameworks, as a rule, work much faster and withstand a greater load than CMS and self-written systems. That is why many popular online stores work not on boxed CMS, but on frameworks. In terms of security, solutions on frameworks are significantly superior to self-written systems and are comparable to CMS (as a rule, sites on frameworks are even safer).

Cons of frameworks

  • The terms of development of typical functionality on frameworks are longer than when using CMS. Frameworks contain only the basic components of application-level business logic, so many functions are implemented individually.
  • Developing on a framework requires an understanding of the business processes that need to be implemented. For example, if the CMS already has some preset order processing process, then the frameworks do not provide this.

Popular frameworks for web development

Popular php frameworks:

  • Yii
  • Symphony
  • Zend
  • Laravel
  • Kohana
  • CodeIgniter

The most popular Ruby frameworks are:

  • Ruby on Rails (clear leader)
  • Sinatra

Popular Python frameworks:

  • Django
  • Plone
  • Twisted
  • Flask
  • Tornado

Popular Elixir framework:

  • Phoenix

Popular Go-frameworks:

  • Gin
  • Martini

Popular Java frameworks:

  • Spring MVC
  • JSF
  • GWT

Popular Kotlin frameworks:

  • Spring
  • ktor